Please contact me if you would like a reprint of any of these manuscripts:


Jourdeuil K. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2017. A wide temporal window for conjunctival papillae development ensures the formation of a complete sclerotic ring. Developmental Dynamics 246:5: 381-391.

Franz-Odendaal TA., Andrews D., Kumar S. 2017. Angiogenesis Meets Skeletogenesis: The Cross-talk between Two Dynamic Systems. Chapter 3. In: Physiologic and Pathologic Angiogenesis – Signaling Mechanisms and Targeted Therapy. Simionescu DT, Simionescu A. (eds). InTechOpen Publishers. Pp. 25.


Jourdeuil K. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2016. Gene expression analysis during the induction and patterning of the conjunctival papillae in the chick embryonic eye. Gene Expression Patterns. 22: 30-36.

Hammer C, Aturokala S and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2016. What shapes the oral jaws? Accommodation of complex dentition correlates with premaxillary but not mandibular shape. Mechanisms of Development. 141:100-108.

Atkins, J. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2016. The sclerotic ring of squamates: evo-devo-eco perspective. Journal of Anatomy. 229: 503-513.

Weigele J., Franz-Odendaal TA.and Hilbig R. 2016. Formation of the inner ear during embryonic and larval development of the cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). Connective Tissue Research

Weigele J. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2016. Functional bone histology of zebrafish reveals two types of endochondral ossification, different types of osteoblast clusters and a new bone type. Journal of Anatomy. 229:1: 92-103.

Atkins J. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2016. The parasphenoid is a compound bone in caecilians: a response to Müller’s comment. Acta zoologica 97: 266. (journal cover image)

Atkins J and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2016. The evolutionary and morphological history of the parasphenoid bone in vertebrates. Acta zoologica 97: 255- 263 (journal cover image)

Weigele J., Franz-Odendaal TA, and Hilbig R. 2016. Not all inner ears are the same: Otolith matrix proteins in the inner ear of sub-adult cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, reveal insights into the biomineralization process. The Anatomical Record 299:2: 234-245.


Aturokala ADS and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2015. Evolution and Development of cavefish oral jaws: adaptations for feeding. In Biology and Evolution of the Mexican Cavefish. Keene A, Yoshizawa M, McGaugh S (Eds), Published by Elsevier. (invited book chapter) Pp 209-226.

Jabalee J. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2015. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates angiogenesis and osteogenesis during the development of scleral ossicles. Developmental Biology 406: 52-62

Weigele J. Hilbig R. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2015. Expression of SPARC and the osteopontin-like protein OP-L during skeletal development in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Developmental Dynamics. 244:8:955-972.

Dufton M and Franz-Odendaal. TA. 2015. Morphological diversity in the orbital bones of two teleosts with experimental and natural variation in eye size. Developmental Dynamics 244:1109-1120

Weigele J., Franz-Odendaal TA, and Hilbig R. 2015. Spatial Expression of Otolith Matrix Protein-1 and Otolin-1 in Normally and Kinetotically Swimming Fish. The Anatomical Record. 298:1765-1773.

Jourdeuil K. Hammer. C. Franz-Odendaal TA. 2015. A comparative analysis of chick culturing methods on skeletogenesis. The Anatomical Record: 298: 810-819.

Cloney K and Franz-Odendaal. TA. 2015. Optimised ex-ovo culturing of chick embryos to advanced stages of development. Journal of Visual Experiments. Doi :10.3791/52129


Franz-Odendaal TA, and Adriaens D. 2014. Comparative developmental osteology of the seahorse skeleton reveals heterochrony amongst Hippocampus sp. and progressive caudal fin loss. EvoDevo 5: 1: 45 (journal cover image)

Chang C and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2014. Perturbing the developing skull: Using laser ablation to investigate the robustness of the infraorbital bones in zebrafish (Danio rerio). BMC Developmental Biology 14:44 (doi:10.1186/s12861-014-0044-7)

Aturokala ADS, and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2014. Spatial and temporal events in tooth development in Astyanax mexicanus. Mechanisms of Development 134:42-54

Edsall S and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2014. A descriptive assessment of the long term effects of simulated microgravity and vibrations on cranial neural crest cells in zebrafish embryos with a focus on the adult skeleton. PlosOne 9(2):e89296

Chang, C and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2014. The Zebrafish Infraorbital Bones: a descriptive study. Zebrafish 11(1):50-6


Atukorala ADS, Hammer, C., Dufton, M. and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2013. Adaptive Evolution of the Lower Jaw Dentition in Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). EvoDevo 7;4(1):28 (Special Issue on Extreme Environments)

Jabalee J. Hillier, S. Franz-Odendaal TA. 2013. An investigation of cellular dynamics during the development of intramembranous bones: the scleral ossicles. Journal of Anatomy 223(4):311-20 (cover image)


Dufton M, Hall BK, Franz-Odendaal TA. In press. Early lens ablation causes dramatic long term effects on the shape of bones in the craniofacial skeleton of Astyanax mexicanus PLOS One 7 (11): e50308

Kague E., Gallagher M.D, Burke S., Parsons M, Franz-Odendaal TA, and Fisher S. In press. Skeletogenic Potential of Zebrafish Cranial and Trunk Neural Crest. PLOS One 7 (11): e47394

Fisher S. Franz-Odendaal TA. 2012. Evolution of the bone gene regulatory network. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 22:1-8.

Milligan B., Harris, N and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2012. Understanding Morphology: A Comparative Study on the Lower Jaw in Two Teleost Species. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 28: 346-352.

Duench, K and Franz-Odendaal, TA. 2012. BMP and Hedgehogsignaling during the development of scleral ossicles. Developmental Biology 365: 251-258

Jourdeuil, K and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2012. Vasculogenesis and the induction of skeletogenic condensations in the avian eye. The Anatomical Record 295:691-698.


Franz-Odendaal, TA. 2011. Scleral ossicles through the Evo-devo looking glass. Journal of Experimental Zoology: Part B: Molecular Evolution and Development. In press.

Franz-Odendaal,TA. Induction and patterning of intramembranous bone. Frontiers in Biosciences. Special Issue – Signaling Mechanisms in Development (invited) (in press)

Franz-Odendaal TA. 2011. Epigenetics in bone and cartilage development. In: B. Hallgrimsson and BK Hall (eds), Epigenetics: Linking genotype and phenotype in development and evolution. University California Press. (pp. 195-220)


Edsall, S and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2010. A whole-mount protocol for staining osteoblasts and osteoclasts in Teleosts. Zebrafish 7:3:275-280.

Schonthaler HB*, Franz-Odendaal TA*, Hodel C, Gehring I, Geisler, R, Schwarz, H, Neuhauss, SC, Dahm, R. 2010. The zebrafish mutant bumper shows secondary fibre cell degeneration in the lens leading to functional blindness associated with altered skull morphology. Mechanism of Development 127: 203-219. (*authors contributed equally)


Varatharasan N, Croll, R, Franz-Odendaal TA. 2009. Taste bud morphology, number and distribution during development in sighted and blind morphs of Astyanax mexicanus. Developmental Dynamics.238: 3056-3064.

Pilgrim BL, and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2009. A comparative study of the ocular skeleton of fossil and modern chondrichthyes. Journal of Anatomy 214: 848-858.


Franz-Odendaal TA. 2008. Towards understanding the development of scleral ossicles in chicken embryos. Developmental Dynamics. 237: 3240-3251.

Franz-Odendaal TA. 2008. The scleral ossicles of Teleostei: Evolutionary and Developmental Trends. The Anatomical Record 291:161-168.

Franz-Odendaal TA. 2008. Whole-mount staining of larval and adult zebrafish. In: The Zebrafish Book: a guide to the laboratory use of the zebrafish Danio, M. Westerfield (ed). University of Oregon Press, Eugene, 2008, pp 8.19-8.21.


Franz-Odendaal T, Ryan K, Hall, BK. 2007. Developmental and morphological variation in the teleost craniofacial skeleton reveals an unusual mode of ossification. Journal of Experimental Zoology, (Mol Dev Evol) 308B: 709-721.

Clauss, M., Franz-Odendaal, T.A., Brasch, J., Castell, J.C., and Kaiser, T. 2007. Tooth wear in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis): mesowear analysis classifies free-ranging specimens as browsers but captive ones as grazers. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38:433-455.


Franz-Odendaal TA, and Hall BK. 2006. Skeletal elements within teleost eyes and a discussion on homology. Journal of Morphology. 267: 1326-1337.

Franz-Odendaal TA and Vikaryous MV. 2006. Skeletal elements in the vertebrate eye and adnexa – morphological and developmental perspectives. Review for a Special Issue on Craniofacial Development Developmental Dynamics 235: 1244-1255.

Franz-Odendaal TA. 2006. Intramembranous ossification of scleral ossicles in Chelydra serpentina. Zoology 109:75-81.

Franz-Odendaal TA, and Hall BK. 2006. Modularity and sense organs in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. Evolution & Development 8:94-100.

Franz-Odendaal TA, Hall BK, and Witten PE. 2006. Buried alive – how osteoblasts become osteocytes. Developmental Dynamics 235:176-190.


Franz-Odendaal TA and Solounias N. 2004. Comparative dietary evaluations of an extinct giraffid (Sivatherium hendeyi) (Mammalia, Giraffidae, Sivatheriinae) from Langebaanweg, South Africa (Early Pliocene). Geodiversitas 26:4:675-685.

Franz-Odendaal TA. 2004. Enamel hypoplasia provides insights into early systemic stress in wild and captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Journal of Zoology (London) 263: 197-206.

Kaiser TM and Franz-Odendaal TA. 2004. A mixed feeding Equus species from the Middle Pleistocene of South Africa. Quaternary Research 62: 316-323.

Franz-Odendaal TA, Chinsamy A, and Lee-Thorp JA. 2004. High prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in an Early Pliocene giraffid (Sivatherium hendeyi) from South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24: 235-244.


Franz-Odendaal TA and Kaiser TM. 2003. Differential mesowear in the maxillary and mandibular cheek dentition of some ruminants (Artiodactyla). Annales Zoologici Fennici 40: 395-410.

Franz-Odendaal TA, Kaiser TM, and Bernor R. 2003. Systematics and dietary evaluation of a fossil equid from South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99: 453-459.

Franz-Odendaal TA, Lee-Thorp JA, and Chinsamy A. 2003. Insights from stable isotopes on enamel defects and weaning in Pliocene herbivores. Journal of Biosciences 28:6:101-109.


Franz-Odendaal TA, Lee-Thorp JA, and Chinsamy A. 2002. New evidence for the lack of C4 grassland expansions during the Early Pliocene at Langebaanweg, South Africa. Paleobiology 28:3: 378-388.


Franz-Odendaal TA. 2001. Environmental stress five million years ago on the West Coast of South Africa? Science in Africa web-based publication (

Late 1990s

Greenberg J, Franz TA, Goliath R, and Ramesar R. 1999. A photoreceptor gene mutation in an indigenous Black African family with retinitis pigmentosa identified using a rapid screening approach for common rhodopsin mutations. South African Medical Journal 89:8:877-878.

Franz TA and Kidson SH. 1997. Mapping of interdigital apoptosis in the chick and duck hindlimb. South African Journal of Science 93: 85-88.

April CS, Franz TA, and Kidson SH. 1996. The cloning and characterization of chick tyrosinase from a novel embryonic cDNA library. Experimental Cell Research 224: 372-378.

The Palaeontological Association Newsletter Publications: 2003-2006

Franz-Odendaal, TA, Hall BK, Budney, LA and Vickaryous MK. 2006. Modularity in Paleontology: Subunit 2. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 61: 23-26. Budney L, Fedak, T, Franz-Odendaal, TA, Hall, BK, and Vickaryous, MK. 2006. A Module on Modularity in Evo-Devo. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 60: 10-12.

Legere J, Handrigan G, Budney L, Cole A, Fedak T, Franz-Odendaal TA, Vickaryous M, Witten PE, and Hall BK. 2005. Something Old, Something New: Inferring Developmental Mode from the Fossil Record. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 58: 26-31.

Fedak T, Franz-Odendaal TA, Hall BK and Vickaryous M. 2004. Epigenetics: The context of development. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 56: 44-49.

Witten E, Huysseune A, Franz-Odendaal TA, Fedak T, Vickaryous M, Cole A, and Hall BK. 2004. Acellular teleost bone: dead or alive, primitive or derived. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 55: 37-41.

Franz-Odendaal TA, Cole A, Fedak T, Vickaryous M, and Hall BK. 2003. Inside and Outside Skeletons. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 54:17-21.

Fedak T, Franz-Odendaal TA, Hall BK, Stone J, and Vickaryous M. 2003. Dusting off bone ontologies: considering skeletons in the palaeo-closet. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 53: 48-51.